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Vatican Clarifies Pope's Statements on Condoms

4 years ago
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The Vatican has clarified controversial statements by Pope Benedict XVI on condom use to prevent AIDS in an effort to end speculation that he has relaxed the church ban on artificial birth control. But the Catholic Church also spoke out to head off a dispute among conservatives over what the pontiff really meant.

In the statement issued on Tuesday, the Vatican said that Benedict's comments in a book-length interview last month did not mark "a break with the doctrine concerning contraception," an interpretation that some media outlets made in the immediate aftermath of the publication of the book, called "Light of the World."

In the volume, compiled from a series of interviews conducted last July by a German journalist sympathetic to Benedict, the pope said that in some cases involving a likely transmission of AIDS, such as by a male prostitute, using a condom "can be a first step in the direction of a moralization, a first assumption of responsibility."

The comments were taken to mean that the pope was agreeing with the longstanding argument by Catholic ethicists and health care practitioners that condoms in some cases could be justified, perhaps as a "lesser evil," in cases where not using one would lead to the death of another person.

The remarks created a furor and a spate of interpretations from left and right. A Vatican spokesman later clarified that the pope meant what he said, and added that he was not restricting his example only to gay sex workers.

The Vatican also indicated that the pope was invoking principles of the lesser evil -- opting for the best case when faced with two bad options -- though the pontiff did not want to use that exact term because it could signal that he was endorsing an intrinsically immoral action.

Intense debate continued, however, in a friendly firefight on the Catholic right. Ethicists argued either that the pope was wrong or that he had been misinterpreted even by a number of conservative Catholic thinkers who saw no problem with Benedict's arguing for a "toleration" of condoms in some cases while not endorsing them as an intrinsic good.

In Tuesday's statement, issued by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the office of orthodoxy once headed by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger before his election as Benedict XVI, the Vatican explicitly said that the pope did not mean to invoke the "lesser evil" argument because that concept could lead to "misinterpretation."

But it did reiterate his original comments:
"The Church teaches that prostitution is immoral and should be shunned," the statement says. "However, those involved in prostitution who are HIV positive and who seek to diminish the risk of contagion by the use of a condom may be taking the first step in respecting the life of another -- even if the evil of prostitution remains in all its gravity. This understanding is in full conformity with the moral theological tradition of the Church."
That statement seems to vindicate the position advocated by Father Martin Rhonheimer, a member of the conservative Opus Dei order, whose 2004 article in a Catholic periodical arguing for a toleration of condoms to prevent AIDS ramped up the long-simmering debate.

The pope's original comments in November seemed to coincide with Rhonheimer's views, but a number of conservatives sharply disagreed, and the two sides have been engaged in a trenchant debate ever since.

To some, the latest Vatican statement seems to place the pope's comments under the classic principle of the "double effect," which says that if you use a condom -- for example -- to save a life and not as a contraceptive, then the first effect (saving a life) mitigates the second effect, which may be to avert pregnancy.

That moral reasoning is, in fact, contained in Humanae Vitae (Paragraph 15), the 1968 papal encyclical barring Catholics from using artificial contraception.

The upshot of this debate is important for Catholic teaching and for the freedom to argue doctrinal issues publicly and to invoke the great breadth of the Catholic intellectual tradition.

But it can, of course, dig so deeply into abstract concepts that it begins to sound like the classic example of theologians debating the sex of angels -- irrelevant, in other words, to real life application.

That's not the case here, however. Whatever category of ethical thinking the pope's remarks cover, they have effectively provided support to Catholic health care workers around the world -- the Catholic Church is largest private provider of care to AIDS patients -- to continue using a variety of strategies to combat the disease.

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MSmailbox

I see this as more of a condomnation of prostitution, than an advocacy of birth control.

December 21 2010 at 11:18 PM Report abuse +3 rate up rate down Reply
mezl

the "vatican" should stop involving it self in peoples' personal business. "religon" is supposed to be about SPIRITUAL stuff, NOT whether people use condoms or not. the "vatican" should leave reproductive rights up to each individual. most priests wouldn't know what a woman is - given their "preferences". may be that's why the "vatican" doesn't want people to use birth control - more innocent little kids for trusting parents to bring to the slaughter.....

December 21 2010 at 11:18 PM Report abuse +10 rate up rate down Reply
jerry

I think everyone should go to church and put a condom in the kitty instead of money for about 6 months and then lets see if the Dope changes his mind on birth control, my guess it will take less than 6 months, when he cant afford to live like a king anymore, better yet if people would get a backbone of there own, they wouldnt belive in this mith.

December 21 2010 at 11:17 PM Report abuse +8 rate up rate down Reply
somerwilliams48

It's sad how we set human standards on things that the bible clearly is against. It's equally as sad to justify and make "exceptions", in regards to not living up to bible standards! The Catholic Church does not set these standards, God does. We should be teaching people about the dangers of premarital sex and the fact that God does not premit this kind of behavior. Nor does he premit Homosexuality! So this shouldn't be about the use of condoms, it should be about the fact that if you want to live in a way that is pleasing to God, you should abstain from ANY kind of behavior that would not be pleasing to him.

December 21 2010 at 9:58 PM Report abuse -4 rate up rate down Reply
2 replies to somerwilliams48's comment
oosp412

Which god do we follow though? What appeases one god is a sin to another. And teaching people about the dangers of premarital sex (by dangers i hope you mean like unwanted pregnancy and what not) is only preventative measures...one can't expect to say that you cant have sex before marriage because it will anger a god (the existence of which in my opinion has yet to be proven) and expect to have the desired results. If you tell people, particularly teenagers, that something is bad..they're going to do it anyway because they know its "wrong." And your sole purpose in life shouldn't be to please god..it should be to live your life in the best way you can so that when you're knocking on death's door, you can say that you're leaving (maybe to heaven, maybe to be buried in a box) with no regrets.

December 21 2010 at 10:12 PM Report abuse +5 rate up rate down Reply
Charlie

God permits homosexuality, by the simple fact that it exists. If God didn't want homosexuality to exist, it wouldn't exist. God is all-powerful. He didn't want cows that fly, goats that play the piano, water that flows uphill, a red sky... so they don't exist. Homosexuals exist, therefore, God wants them here. If not, God would wave a magic hand, and every homosexual man would immediately become straight and every lesbian woman would immediately find a man, because God has all power over the universe. Homosexuals are here because God wants them here... OR, God isn't God because he is not all powerful as some claim he is.

December 21 2010 at 11:08 PM Report abuse -4 rate up rate down Reply
michael

I think it could be used in heterosexual relations for the same reasons unwanted sexually transmitted diseases. Still the best teaching is abstinance.

December 21 2010 at 9:06 PM Report abuse -1 rate up rate down Reply
michael

I think the Pope is a very brave man and I think that what he is trying to do because he understands that all of mankind is not perfect and that if abstinance cannot be followed at least take the lesser evil path and use a little protection for your self and your partner. We are all sinners but it should not result in a death sentence for not being a perfect saint...

December 21 2010 at 9:02 PM Report abuse -4 rate up rate down Reply

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